Financial report / Explanations and comments on the Balance Sheet
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Basis of preparation and summary of significant accounting policies

Basis of presentation — The consolidated financial statements of the Group are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) and the Federal Law № 208 On Consolidated Financial Statements (№ 208-Ф3 “О Консолидированной финансовой отчетности”). The consolidated financial statements are presented in millions of US dollars (“USD”), except where specifically noted otherwise.

All significant subsidiaries directly or indirectly controlled by the Group are included in the consolidated financial statements. A listing of the Group’s principal subsidiary companies is set out in Note 1.

The Group maintains its accounting records in Russian roubles (“RUB”) and in accordance with Russian accounting legislation and regulations. The accompanying consolidated financial statements are based on the underlying accounting records, appropriately adjusted and reclassified for fair presentation in accordance with IFRS.

Functional and presentation currency — Since 1 January 2007 the functional currency of the Company is the Russian rouble. These consolidated financial statements are presented in US dollar for the convenience of foreign users, including the major lessors.

The assets and liabilities, both monetary and non-monetary, have been translated at the closing rate at the date of each consolidated statement of financial position presented in accordance with International Accounting Standard (“IAS”) 21 The Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. Income and expense items for all periods presented have been translated at the exchange rates existing at the dates of the transactions or a rate that approximates the actual exchange rates. All exchange differences resulting from translation have been classified as other comprehensive income and transferred to the Group’s translation reserve.

Any conversion of Russian rouble amounts to US dollars should not be considered as a representation that Russian rouble amounts have been, could be or will be in the future, converted into US dollars at the exchange rate shown or at any other exchange rate.

The assets and liabilities, both monetary and non-monetary, of the subsidiaries of the Company with functional currencies other than the Russian rouble have been translated at the closing rate at the date of each consolidated statement of financial position presented. Income and expense items for all periods presented have been translated at the exchange rates existing at the dates of the transactions or a rate that approximates the actual exchange rates. All exchange differences resulting from translation have been classified as equity and transferred to the Group’s translation reserve.

The following table details the exchange rates used to translate Russian roubles to US dollars:

Exchange rate
As at 31 December 2012 30.37
Average rate in 2012 31.09
As at 31 December 2011 32.20
Average rate in 2011 29.39
As at 31 December 2010 30.48

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the revaluation of certain non-current assets and financial instruments. The principal accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements are set out below. There have been no significant changes to accounting policies.

Consolidation — The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the Company and entities controlled by the Company (its subsidiaries). Subsidiaries comprise entities in which the Company, directly or indirectly, has an interest of more than one half of the voting rights or otherwise has power to exercise control over their operations. Control is achieved where the Company has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an investee entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.

Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date on which effective control is obtained by the Group and are no longer consolidated from the date of disposal or loss of control.

All intra-group transactions, balances and unrealised surpluses and deficits on transactions between Group companies are eliminated on consolidation. Non-controlling interests in the net assets of consolidated subsidiaries are identified separately from the Group’s equity therein. The interest of non-controlling shareholders is stated at the non-controlling proportion of the fair values of the assets and liabilities acquired adjusted by subsequent changes in the carrying value of net assets of those entities. Losses applicable to the non-controlling interest in a subsidiary are allocated to the non-controlling interest even if doing so causes the non-controlling interests to have a debit (deficit) balance.

Business combinations — Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method as at the acquisition date, which is the date on which control is transferred to the Group. Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, the Group takes into consideration potential voting rights that currently are exercisable.

The Group measures goodwill at the acquisition date as:

When the excess is negative, a bargain purchase gain is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

The consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships between the buyer and the acquired entity. Such amounts are generally recognised in profit or loss.

Costs related to the acquisition, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, that the Group incurs in connection with a business combination, are expensed as incurred.

Any contingent consideration payable, which is dependent on future events (“contingent consideration”) is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. If the contingent consideration is classified as equity, it is not remeasured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognised in profit or loss.

The results of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated statement of income from the effective date of acquisition or up to the effective date of disposal, as appropriate. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting policies into line with those used by other members of the Group.

Purchases of non-controlling interests — From 1 January 2010 the Group has applied IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements (2008) in accounting for acquisitions of non-controlling interest.

In accordance with the new accounting policy acquisition of non-controlling interests is accounted for as transactions with owners in their capacity, as owners and therefore no goodwill is recognised as a result of such transaction.

The adjustments to non-controlling interest are based on a proportionate amount of the net assets of the subsidiary.

Investments in associates — Associates in which the Group has significant influence but not a controlling interest are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Significant influence is usually demonstrated by the Group’s owning, directly or indirectly, between 20% and 50% of the voting share capital or by exerting significant influence through other means.

Under the equity method, investments in associates are carried in the consolidated statement of financial position at cost as adjusted for post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of the net assets of the associate, less any impairment in the value of individual investments. The Group’s share of the net income or losses of associates is included in the consolidated statement of income. An assessment of impairment of investments in associates is performed when there is an indication that the asset has been impaired or that the impairment losses recognised in prior years no longer exist. Losses of an associate in excess of the Group’s interest in that associate (which includes any long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the Group’s net investment in the associate) are not recognised.

Where a group entity enters into a transaction with an associate of the Group, profits and losses are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the relevant associate. A listing of the Group’s principal associated entities is included in Note 1.

Foreign currency translation — Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are initially recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in such currencies at the reporting date are translated into the functional currency at the year end exchange rate. Exchange differences arising from such translation are included in the consolidated statement of income.

Non-current assets and disposal groups held for sale — Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as being met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset (or disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Management must be committed to the sale, which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.

Any liabilities related to non-current assets to be sold are also presented separately as liabilities in the consolidated statement of financial position. Non-current assets (and disposal groups) classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of the assets’ previous carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

Revenue recognition — Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents amounts receivable for goods and services provided in the normal course of business, net of sales related taxes.

Passenger revenue: Ticket sales are reported as traffic revenue when the transportation service has been provided. The value of tickets sold and still valid but not used by the reporting date is reported as unearned transportation revenue. This item is reduced either when the Group completes the transportation service or when the passenger requests a refund. Sales representing the value of tickets that have been issued, but which will never be used, are recognised as traffic revenue at the date the tickets are issued based on an analysis of historical patterns of actual sales data. Commissions, which are payable to the sales agents are recognised as sales and marketing expenses at the same time as revenue from the air transportation to which they relate.

Passenger revenue includes revenue from code-share agreements with certain other airlines. Under these agreements, the Group sells seats on these airlines’ flights and those other airlines sell seats on the Group’s flights. Revenue from the sale of code-share seats on other airlines are recorded net in Group’s passenger revenue in the consolidated statement of income. The revenue from other airlines’ sales of code-share seats on the Group’s flights is recorded in passenger revenue in the Group’s consolidated statement of income.

Cargo revenue: The Group’s cargo transport services are recognised as revenue when the air transportation is provided. Cargo sales for which the transportation service has not yet been provided are shown as unearned transportation revenue.

Catering revenue: Revenue is recognised when meal packages are delivered to the aircraft, as this is the date when the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to customers.

Other revenue: Revenue from bilateral airline agreements is recognised when earned with reference to the terms of each agreement. Hotel accommodation revenue is recognised when the services are provided. Sales of goods and other services are recognised as revenue when the goods are delivered or the service is rendered. Revenue from airport and traffic services is recognised in profit and loss when services are rendered to customers in accordance with the relevant service agreements.

Borrowing costs — All borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction and production of a qualifying asset form part of the cost of that asset. All other borrowings costs are recognised as an expense in the consolidated statement of income.

Operating segments — The Group determines and presents operating segments based on the information that internally is provided to the General Director, who is the Group’s chief operating decision maker.

An operating segment is a component of the Group that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transactions with any of the Group’s other components. An operating segment’s operating results are reviewed regularly by the General Director to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance, and for which discrete financial information is available.

Segment results that are reported to the General Director include items directly attributable to a segment as well as those that can be allocated on a reasonable basis.

Property, plant and equipment — Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, or appraised value, as described below. Depreciation is calculated in order to amortise the cost or appraised value (less estimated salvage value where applicable) over the remaining useful lives of the assets.

  1. Fleet
    1. Owned aircraft and engines — Aircraft and engines owned by the Group as at 31 December 1995 were stated at depreciated replacement cost based upon external valuations denominated in US dollars. Airclaims, an international firm of aircraft appraisers, conducted the valuation. The Group has chosen not to revalue these assets subsequent to 1995. Subsequent purchases are recorded at cost.
    2. Finance leased aircraft and engines — Where assets are financed through finance leases, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The Group recognises finance leases as assets and liabilities in the consolidated statement of financial position at amounts equal to the fair value of the leased property at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the capital portion of lease payments made, is included in payables. Custom duties, legal fees and other initial direct costs are added to the amount recognised as an asset. The interest element of lease payments made is included in interest expense in the consolidated statement of income.
    3. Capitalised maintenance costs — Expenditure incurred on modernisation and improvements projects that are significant in size (mainly aircraft modifications involving installation of replacement parts) are separately capitalised and presented in the consolidated statement of financial position. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognised from the consolidated statement of financial position and included in gain or loss on disposals of property, plant and equipment in the Group’s consolidated statement of income. Capitalised costs of aircraft checks and major modernisation and improvements projects are depreciated on a straight-line basis to the projected date of the next check or based on estimates of their useful lives. Ordinary repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.
    4. Depreciation — The Group depreciates fleet assets owned or held under finance leases on a straight-line basis to the end of their estimated useful life or lease term. The airframe, engines and interior of an aircraft are depreciated separately over their respective estimated useful lives. The salvage value for airframes of the foreign fleet is estimated at 5% of historical cost, while the salvage value for Russian aircraft is zero. Engines are depreciated on a straight-line basis.

      Useful lives of the Group’s fleet assets are as follows:

      Airframes of foreign aircraft 20 years
      Airframes of Russian aircraft 25-32 years
      Engines of foreign aircraft 8 years
      Engines of Russian aircraft 8-10 years
      Interiors 5 years
    5. Capitalised leasehold improvements — capitalised costs that relate to the rented fleet are depreciated over the shorter of their useful life and the lease term.
  2. Land and buildings, plant and equipment 
    Property, plant and equipment is stated at the historical US dollar cost recalculated at the exchange rate on 1 January 2007, the date of the change of the functional currency of the Company from the US dollar to the Russian rouble. Provision is made for the depreciation of property, plant and equipment based upon expected useful lives or, in the case of leasehold properties, over the duration of the leases using a straight-line basis. These useful lives range from 3 to 50 years. Land is not depreciated.
  3. Capital expenditure.
    Capital expenditures comprise costs directly related to the construction of property, plant and equipment including an appropriate allocation of directly attributable variable overheads that are incurred in construction as well as costs of purchase of other assets that require installation or preparation for their use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as for other property assets, commences when the assets are put into operation. Capital expenditures are reviewed regularly to determine whether their carrying value is fairly stated and whether appropriate provision for impairment is made.
  4. Gain or loss on disposal
    The gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an asset is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in the consolidated statement of income.

Impairment of non-current assets — At each reporting date the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its non-current assets to determine whether there is any indication of impairment of those assets. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in the consolidated statement of income.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (cash-generating unit) in prior years. Impairment losses on goodwill cannot be subsequently reversed.

Lease deposits — Lease deposits represent amounts paid to the lessors of foreign aircraft, which are held as security deposits by lessors in accordance with the provisions of finance and operating lease agreements. These deposits are returned to the Group at the end of the lease period. Lease deposits relating to operating lease agreements are presented as assets in the consolidated statement of financial position. A portion of these deposits is interest-free. Interest-free deposits are recorded at amortised cost using an average market yield between 5.0% and 9.5%. Lease deposits that are part of finance lease arrangements are presented net as part of the finance lease liability.

Operating leases — Payments under operating leases are charged to the consolidated statement of income in equal annual instalments over the period of the lease. Related direct expenses including custom duties for leased aircraft are amortised using a straight-line method over the term of lease agreement.

Financial instruments — Financial assets and financial liabilities carried in the balance sheet include cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, investments, derivative financial instruments, trade and other accounts receivable, trade and other accounts payable, borrowings and notes payable. The accounting policies on recognition and measurement of these items are disclosed below.

Financial instruments are classified as liabilities or equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement. Interest, dividends, and gains and losses relating to a financial instrument classified as a liability are reported as income or expense. Distributions to holders of financial instruments classified as equity are charged directly to equity. Financial instruments are offset when the Group has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends to settle either on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The result from the realisation of the financial instruments is determined on the FIFO basis.

  1. Credit risks 

    The sale of passenger and freight transportation is largely processed through agencies that are normally linked to country specific clearing systems for the settlement of passenger and freight sales. Clearing centres check individual agents operating outside of the Russian Federation. Individual agents operating within the Russian Federation are checked in-house.

    Receivables and liabilities between major airlines, unless otherwise stipulated in the respective agreements, are settled on a bilateral basis or by settlement through an International Air Transport Association (“IATA”) clearing house.

  2. Fair value 

    The fair value of financial instruments is determined by reference to various market information and other valuation methods as considered appropriate. At the reporting date the fair values of the financial instruments held by the Group did not materially differ from their recorded book values.

  3. Foreign exchange risk

    In 2012 the Group mostly managed its foreign exchange risk by matching its assets and liabilities in the different currencies to limit exposure. However, a portion of its foreign exchange risk was managed through the use of hedging instruments (Note 25).

  4. Interest rate risk

    The Group’s main exposure to interest rate risk is from its finance lease liabilities and short-term borrowings. In 2012 the Group engaged in interest rate hedging activities to hedge its exposure to the changes in interest rates. The Group constantly monitors changes in interest rates to minimise the level of its exposure (Note 25).

  5. Non-financial risks — fuel hedging activities 

    The results of Group’s operations can be significantly impacted by changes in the price of aircraft fuel. Since 2010 the Group engaged in fuel hedging activities to hedge a portion of its non-financial risk related to fuel (Note 25). The Group does not use derivative instruments for speculative purposes.

Cash and cash equivalents — Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, balances with banks and short-term interest-bearing accounts which are used in the day to day financing of the Group’s airline activities.

Investments — The Group’s financial assets have been classified according to IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement into the following categories: securities held for trading, held-to-maturity investments, loans and other receivables, and available-for-sale investments. Investments with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity, which the Group has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity, other than loans and receivables, are classified as held-to-maturity investments. Derivative financial instruments and investments acquired principally for the purpose of generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in price are classified as trading securities. All other investments, other than loans and receivables, are classified as available-for-sale.

Investments are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis where the purchase or sale of an investment is under a contract whose terms require delivery of the investment within the timeframe established by the market concerned, and are initially measured at fair value, plus directly attributable transaction costs.

Held-to-maturity investments are financial assets excluding derivative contracts which mature on a specified date and which a company has the firm intent and ability to hold to maturity. They are valued at allocated acquisition cost and they are included in long-term assets provided the redemption term exceeds one year.

Investments other than held-to-maturity debt securities are classified as either investments held for trading or as available-for-sale, loans and receivables, and are measured at subsequent reporting dates at fair value. Investments in equity instruments of other companies that do not have a quoted market price are stated at cost less impairment loss, as it is not practicable to determine the fair value of such investments. For derivatives and other financial instruments classified as held for trading, gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are included in the consolidated statement of income for the period. For available-for-sale investments, gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognised directly in other comprehensive income, until the security is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in equity is included in the consolidated statement of income for the period. Impairment losses recognised in the consolidated statement of income for equity investments classified as available-for-sale are not subsequently reversed through the consolidated statement of income. Impairment losses recognised in the consolidated statement of income for debt instruments classified as available-for-sale are subsequently reversed if an increase in the fair value of the instrument can be objectively related to an event occurring after the recognition of the impairment loss.

In 2012 the Group held corporate and Government financial instruments primarily comprising shares and bonds. These are classified as held-for-trading investments. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value of held-for-trading investments are recognised in the consolidated statement of income.

The Group assesses on each closing date whether there is any objective evidence that the value of a financial asset item or group of items has been impaired. If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has arisen for loans and other receivables entered at allocated acquisition cost in the consolidated statement of financial position or for held-to-maturity investments, the size of the loss is determined as the difference between the book value of the asset item and the present value of expected future cash flows of the said financial asset item discounted at the original effective interest rate. The loss is recognised in the consolidated statement of income.

Loans and receivables — Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. Loans and receivables are individually recognised at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Because the expected term of an account receivable is short, the value is typically stated at the nominal amount without discounting, which corresponds with the fair value. Uncertain accounts receivable balances are assessed individually and any impairment losses are included in non-operating expenses.

Accounts payable — Trade payables are initially measured at fair value and are subsequently measured at amortised cost and because the expected term of accounts payable is short the value is stated at the nominal amount without discounting, which corresponds with the fair value.

Short-term borrowings — Short-term borrowings comprise:

These liabilities are measured at amortised cost and reported based on the settlement date.

Long-term borrowings — Long-term borrowings (i.e. liabilities with a term longer than one year) consist of interest-bearing loans, which are initially measured at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method as at the settlement date.

Expendable spare parts and inventories — Inventories, including aircraft expendable spare parts, are valued at cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. The costs are determined on the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) basis. Inventories are reported net of provisions for slow-moving or obsolete items.

Value added taxes — Value added tax (“VAT”) related to sales is payable to the tax authorities on an accruals basis. For sales of passenger tickets VAT liability is recognised when the tickets are registered for a flight by the customers. Domestic flights are subject to VAT at 18% and international flights are not subject to VAT. Input VAT invoiced by domestic suppliers as well as VAT paid in respect of imported aircraft and spare parts may be recovered, subject to certain restrictions, against output VAT. The recovery of input VAT is typically delayed by up to six months and sometimes longer due to compulsory tax audit requirements and other administrative matters. Input VAT claimed for recovery as at the reporting date is presented net of the output VAT liability. Recoverable input VAT that is not claimed for recovery in the current period is recorded in the consolidated statement of financial position as VAT receivable. VAT receivables that are not expected to be recovered within the twelve months from the reporting date are classified as long-term assets. VAT balances are not discounted. Where provision has been made for uncollectible receivables, the bad debt expense is recorded at the gross amount of the account receivable, including VAT. The provision for non-recoverable VAT is charged to the consolidated statement of income as a non-operating expense.

Frequent flyer programme — Since 1999 the Group operates a frequent flyer programme referred to as Aeroflot Bonus. Subject to the programme’s terms and condition, the miles earned entitle members to a number of benefits such as free flights and flight class upgrades.

In accordance with IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes accumulated but as yet unused bonus miles are deferred using the deferred revenue method to the extent that they are likely to be used on flights of Aeroflot Group. The fair value of miles accumulated on the Group’s own flights is recognised under deferred revenue (Note 28) and the miles collected from third parties as well as promotional miles are recognised as other liabilities (Note 26 and Note 33).

Provisions — Provisions are recognised if, and only if, the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, and it is probable (i.e. more likely than not) that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. Where the expected timing of cash flows can be estimated and the effect of the time value of money is significant, the amount of a provision is stated at the present value of the expenditures required to settle the obligation.

Income tax — The income tax rate for industrial enterprises in Russia is 20%.

Deferred income taxes — Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated in respect of temporary differences in accordance with IAS 12 Income Taxes. IAS 12 requires the application of the balance sheet liability method for financial reporting and accounting for deferred income taxes. Deferred income taxes are provided for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying values for financial reporting purposes. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recorded only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply during the period when the asset is to be realised or the liability settled, based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. As at 31 December 2012 deferred tax assets and liabilities have been measured at 20%. Deferred tax is charged or credited to the consolidated statement of income, except when it relates to items credited or charged directly to other comprehensive income, in which case the deferred tax is dealt with in equity.

Employee benefits — The Group makes certain payments to employees on retirement or when they otherwise leave the employment of the Group. These obligations, which are unfunded, represent obligations under a defined benefit pension plan. For such plans the pension accounting costs are assessed using the projected unit credit method. Under this method the cost of providing pensions is charged to the consolidated statement of income in order to spread the regular cost over the average service lives of employees. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the consolidated statement of income immediately. The pension payments may be increased upon the retirement of an employee based on the decision of management. The pension liability for non-retired employees is calculated based on a minimum annual pension payment and do not include increases, if any, to be made by management in the future. Where such post-employment employee benefits fall due more than twenty months after the reporting date they are discounted using a discount rate determined by reference to the average government bond yields at the reporting date.

The Group also participates in a defined contribution plan, under which the Group has committed to making additional contributions at a certain percentage (15% to 20% in 2012) of the contribution made by employees choosing to participate in the plan. Contributions made by the Group on defined contribution plans are charged to expenses when incurred. Contributions are also made to the Government Pension fund at the statutory rates in force during the year. Such contributions are expensed as incurred.

Share-based payment transactions — The grant-date fair value of share-based payment awards granted to employees is recognised as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees unconditionally become entitled to the awards. The amount recognised as an expense is adjusted to reflect the number of awards for which the related service and non-market vesting conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognised as an expense is based on the number of awards that meet the related service and non-market performance conditions at the vesting date. For share-based payment awards with non-vesting conditions, the grant-date fair value of the share-based payment is measured to reflect such conditions and there is no true-up for differences between expected and actual outcomes.

Treasury shares — The Company’s shares, which are held as treasury stock or belong to the Company’s subsidiaries, are reflected as a reduction of the Group’s equity. The disposal of such shares does not impact net income for the current year and is recognised as a change in the shareholders’ equity of the Group. Dividend distributions by the Company are recorded net of the dividends related to treasury shares.

Dividends — Dividends are recognised at the date they are declared by the shareholders at a general meeting.

Retained earnings legally distributable by the Company are based on the amounts available for distribution in accordance with applicable legislation and reflected in the statutory financial statements. These amounts may differ significantly from the amounts presented in accordance with IFRS.

Earnings per share — Earnings per share are calculated by dividing the profit for the period attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period.

Contingencies — Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the consolidated financial statements unless they arise as a result of a business combination. They are disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. Contingent assets are not recognised in the consolidated financial statements but are disclosed when an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

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